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Git is a free and open source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency. Git is easy to learn and has a tiny footprint with lightning fast performance. It outclasses SCM tools like Subversion, CVS, Perforce, and ClearCase with features like cheap local branching, convenient staging areas, and multiple workflows.

What’s New on Git 2.29.0?

Git 2.29 Release Notes
======================

Updates since v2.28
-------------------

UI, Workflows & Features

 * "git help log" has been enhanced by sharing more material from the
   documentation for the underlying "git rev-list" command.

 * "git for-each-ref --format=<>" learned %(contents:size).

 * "git merge" learned to selectively omit " into <branch>" at the end
   of the title of default merge message with merge.suppressDest
   configuration.

 * The component to respond to "git fetch" request is made more
   configurable to selectively allow or reject object filtering
   specification used for partial cloning.

 * Stop when "sendmail.*" configuration variables are defined, which
   could be a mistaken attempt to define "sendemail.*" variables.

 * The existing backends for "git mergetool" based on variants of vim
   have been refactored and then support for "nvim" has been added.

 * "git bisect" learns the "--first-parent" option to find the first
   breakage along the first-parent chain.

 * "git log --first-parent -p" showed patches only for single-parent
   commits on the first-parent chain; the "--first-parent" option has
   been made to imply "-m".  Use "--no-diff-merges" to restore the
   previous behaviour to omit patches for merge commits.

 * The commit labels used to explain each side of conflicted hunks
   placed by the sequencer machinery have been made more readable by
   humans.

 * The "--batch-size" option of "git multi-pack-index repack" command
   is now used to specify that very small packfiles are collected into
   one until the total size roughly exceeds it.

 * The recent addition of SHA-256 support is marked as experimental in
   the documentation.

 * "git fetch" learned --no-write-fetch-head option to avoid writing
   the FETCH_HEAD file.

 * Command line completion (in contrib/) usually omits redundant,
   deprecated and/or dangerous options from its output; it learned to
   optionally include all of them.

 * The output from the "diff" family of the commands had abbreviated
   object names of blobs involved in the patch, but its length was not
   affected by the --abbrev option.  Now it is.

 * "git worktree" gained a "repair" subcommand to help users recover
   after moving the worktrees or repository manually without telling
   Git.  Also, "git init --separate-git-dir" no longer corrupts
   administrative data related to linked worktrees.

 * The "--format=" option to the "for-each-ref" command and friends
   learned a few more tricks, e.g. the ":short" suffix that applies to
   "objectname" now also can be used for "parent", "tree", etc.

 * "git worktree add" learns that the "-d" is a synonym to "--detach"
   option to create a new worktree without being on a branch.

 * "format-patch --range-diff=<prev> <origin>..HEAD" has been taught
   not to ignore <origin> when <prev> is a single version.

 * "add -p" now allows editing paths that were only added in intent.

 * The 'meld' backend of the "git mergetool" learned to give the
   underlying 'meld' the '--auto-merge' option, which would help
   reduce the amount of text that requires manual merging.

 * "git for-each-ref" and friends that list refs used to allow only
   one --merged or --no-merged to filter them; they learned to take
   combination of both kind of filtering.

 * "git maintenance", a "git gc"'s big brother, has been introduced to
   take care of more repository maintenance tasks, not limited to the
   object database cleaning.

 * "git receive-pack" that accepts requests by "git push" learned to
   outsource most of the ref updates to the new "proc-receive" hook.

 * "git push" that wants to be atomic and wants to send push
   certificate learned not to prepare and sign the push certificate
   when it fails the local check (hence due to atomicity it is known
   that no certificate is needed).

 * "git commit-graph write" learned to limit the number of bloom
   filters that are computed from scratch with the --max-new-filters
   option.

 * The transport protocol v2 has become the default again.

 * The installation procedure learned to optionally omit "git-foo"
   executable files for each 'foo' built-in subcommand, which are only
   required by old timers that still rely on the age old promise that
   prepending "git --exec-path" output to PATH early in their script
   will keep the "git-foo" calls they wrote working.

 * The command line completion (in contrib/) learned that "git restore
   -s <TAB>" is often followed by a refname.

 * "git shortlog" has been taught to group commits by the contents of
   the trailer lines, like "Reviewed-by:", "Coauthored-by:", etc.

 * "git archive" learns the "--add-file" option to include untracked
   files into a snapshot from a tree-ish.

 * "git fetch" and "git push" support negative refspecs.

 * "git format-patch" learns to take "whenAble" as a possible value
   for the format.useAutoBase configuration variable to become no-op
   when the  automatically computed base does not make sense.

 * Credential helpers are now allowed to terminate lines with CRLF
   line ending, as well as LF line ending.


Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.

 * The changed-path Bloom filter is improved using ideas from an
   independent implementation.

 * Updates to the changed-paths bloom filter.

 * The test framework has been updated so that most tests will run
   with predictable (artificial) timestamps.

 * Preliminary clean-up of the refs API in preparation for adding a
   new refs backend "reftable".

 * Dev support to limit the use of test_must_fail to only git commands.

 * While packing many objects in a repository with a promissor remote,
   lazily fetching missing objects from the promissor remote one by
   one may be inefficient---the code now attempts to fetch all the
   missing objects in batch (obviously this won't work for a lazy
   clone that lazily fetches tree objects as you cannot even enumerate
   what blobs are missing until you learn which trees are missing).

 * The pretend-object mechanism checks if the given object already
   exists in the object store before deciding to keep the data
   in-core, but the check would have triggered lazy fetching of such
   an object from a promissor remote.

 * The argv_array API is useful for not just managing argv but any
   "vector" (NULL-terminated array) of strings, and has seen adoption
   to a certain degree.  It has been renamed to "strvec" to reduce the
   barrier to adoption.

 * The final leg of SHA-256 transition plus doc updates.  Note that
   there is no interoperability between SHA-1 and SHA-256
   repositories yet.

 * CMake support to build with MSVC for Windows bypassing the Makefile.

 * A new helper function has_object() has been introduced to make it
   easier to mark object existence checks that do and don't want to
   trigger lazy fetches, and a few such checks are converted using it.

 * A no-op replacement function implemented as a C preprocessor macro
   does not perform as good a job as one implemented as a "static
   inline" function in catching errors in parameters; replace the
   former with the latter in <git-compat-util.h> header.

 * Test framework update.
   (merge d572f52a64 es/test-cmp-typocatcher later to maint).

 * Updates to "git merge" tests, in preparation for a new merge
   strategy backend.

 * midx and commit-graph files now use the byte defined in their file
   format specification for identifying the hash function used for
   object names.

 * The FETCH_HEAD is now always read from the filesystem regardless of
   the ref backend in use, as its format is much richer than the
   normal refs, and written directly by "git fetch" as a plain file..

 * An unused binary has been discarded, and and a bunch of commands
   have been turned into into built-in.

 * A handful of places in in-tree code still relied on being able to
   execute the git subcommands, especially built-ins, in "git-foo"
   form, which have been corrected.

 * When a packfile is removed by "git repack", multi-pack-index gets
   cleared; the code was taught to do so less aggressively by first
   checking if the midx actually refers to a pack that no longer
   exists.

 * Internal API clean-up to handle two options "diff-index" and "log"
   have, which happen to share the same short form, more sensibly.

 * The "add -i/-p" machinery has been written in C but it is not used
   by default yet.  It is made default to those who are participating
   in feature.experimental experiment.

 * Allow maintainers to tweak $(TAR) invocations done while making
   distribution tarballs.

 * "git index-pack" learned to resolve deltified objects with greater
   parallelism.

 * "diff-highlight" (in contrib/) had a logic to flush its output upon
   seeing a blank line but the way it detected a blank line was broken.

 * The logic to skip testing on the tagged commit and the tag itself
   was not quite consistent which led to failure of Windows test
   tasks.  It has been revamped to consistently skip revisions that
   have already been tested, based on the tree object of the revision.


Fixes since v2.28
-----------------

 * The "mediawiki" remote backend which lives in contrib/mw-to-git/
   and is not built with git by default, had an RCE bug allowing a
   malicious MediaWiki server operator to inject arbitrary commands
   for execution by a cloning client. This has been fixed.

   The bug was discovered and reported by Joern Schneeweisz of GitLab
   to the git-security mailing list. Its practical impact due to the
   obscurity of git-remote-mediawiki was deemed small enough to forgo
   a dedicated security release.

 * "git clone --separate-git-dir=$elsewhere" used to stomp on the
   contents of the existing directory $elsewhere, which has been
   taught to fail when $elsewhere is not an empty directory.
   (merge dfaa209a79 bw/fail-cloning-into-non-empty later to maint).

 * With the base fix to 2.27 regresion, any new extensions in a v0
   repository would still be silently honored, which is not quite
   right.  Instead, complain and die loudly.
   (merge ec91ffca04 jk/reject-newer-extensions-in-v0 later to maint).

 * Fetching from a lazily cloned repository resulted at the server
   side in attempts to lazy fetch objects that the client side has,
   many of which will not be available from the third-party anyway.
   (merge 77aa0941ce jt/avoid-lazy-fetching-upon-have-check later to maint).

 * Fix to an ancient bug caused by an over-eager attempt for
   optimization.
   (merge a98f7fb366 rs/add-index-entry-optim-fix later to maint).

 * Pushing a ref whose name contains non-ASCII character with the
   "--force-with-lease" option did not work over smart HTTP protocol,
   which has been corrected.
   (merge cd85b447bf bc/push-cas-cquoted-refname later to maint).

 * "git mv src dst", when src is an unmerged path, errored out
   correctly but with an incorrect error message to claim that src is
   not tracked, which has been clarified.
   (merge 9b906af657 ct/mv-unmerged-path-error later to maint).

 * Fix to a regression introduced during 2.27 cycle.
   (merge cada7308ad en/fill-directory-exponential later to maint).

 * Command line completion (in contrib/) update.
   (merge 688b87c81b mp/complete-show-color-moved later to maint).

 * All "mergy" operations that internally use the merge-recursive
   machinery should honor the merge.renormalize configuration, but
   many of them didn't.

 * Doc cleanup around "worktree".
   (merge dc9c144be5 es/worktree-doc-cleanups later to maint).

 * The "git blame --first-parent" option was not documented, but now
   it is.
   (merge 11bc12ae1e rp/blame-first-parent-doc later to maint).

 * The logic to find the ref transaction hook script attempted to
   cache the path to the found hook without realizing that it needed
   to keep a copied value, as the API it used returned a transitory
   buffer space.  This has been corrected.
   (merge 09b2aa30c9 ps/ref-transaction-hook later to maint).

 * Recent versions of "git diff-files" shows a diff between the index
   and the working tree for "intent-to-add" paths as a "new file"
   patch; "git apply --cached" should be able to take "git diff-files"
   and should act as an equivalent to "git add" for the path, but the
   command failed to do so for such a path.
   (merge 4c025c667e rp/apply-cached-with-i-t-a later to maint).

 * "git diff [<tree-ish>] $path" for a $path that is marked with i-t-a
   bit was not showing the mode bits from the working tree.
   (merge cb0dd22b82 rp/ita-diff-modefix later to maint).

 * Ring buffer with size 4 used for bin-hex translation resulted in a
   wrong object name in the sequencer's todo output, which has been
   corrected.
   (merge 5da69c0dac ak/sequencer-fix-find-uniq-abbrev later to maint).

 * When given more than one target line ranges, "git blame -La,b
   -Lc,d" was over-eager to coalesce groups of original lines and
   showed incorrect results, which has been corrected.
   (merge c2ebaa27d6 jk/blame-coalesce-fix later to maint).

 * The regexp to identify the function boundary for FORTRAN programs
   has been updated.
   (merge 75c3b6b2e8 pb/userdiff-fortran-update later to maint).

 * A few end-user facing messages have been updated to be
   hash-algorithm agnostic.
   (merge 4279000d3e jc/object-names-are-not-sha-1 later to maint).

 * "unlink" emulation on MinGW has been optimized.
   (merge 680e0b4524 jh/mingw-unlink later to maint).

 * The purpose of "git init --separate-git-dir" is to initialize a
   new project with the repository separate from the working tree,
   or, in the case of an existing project, to move the repository
   (the .git/ directory) out of the working tree. It does not make
   sense to use --separate-git-dir with a bare repository for which
   there is no working tree, so disallow its use with bare
   repositories.
   (merge ccf236a23a es/init-no-separate-git-dir-in-bare later to maint).

 * "ls-files -o" mishandled the top-level directory of another git
   working tree that hangs in the current git working tree.
   (merge ab282aa548 en/dir-nonbare-embedded later to maint).

 * Fix some incorrect UNLEAK() annotations.
   (merge 3e19816dc0 jk/unleak-fixes later to maint).

 * Use more buffered I/O where we used to call many small write(2)s.
   (merge a698d67b08 rs/more-buffered-io later to maint).

 * The patch-id computation did not ignore the "incomplete last line"
   marker like whitespaces.
   (merge 82a62015a7 rs/patch-id-with-incomplete-line later to maint).

 * Updates into a lazy/partial clone with a submodule did not work
   well with transfer.fsckobjects set.

 * The parser for "git for-each-ref --format=..." was too loose when
   parsing the "%(trailers...)" atom, and forgot that "trailers" and
   "trailers:<modifiers>" are the only two allowed forms, which has
   been corrected.
   (merge 2c22e102f8 hv/ref-filter-trailers-atom-parsing-fix later to maint).

 * Long ago, we decided to use 3 threads by default when running the
   index-pack task in parallel, which has been adjusted a bit upwards.
   (merge fbff95b67f jk/index-pack-w-more-threads later to maint).

 * "git restore/checkout --no-overlay" with wildcarded pathspec
   mistakenly removed matching paths in subdirectories, which has been
   corrected.
   (merge bfda204ade rs/checkout-no-overlay-pathspec-fix later to maint).

 * The description of --cached/--index options in "git apply --help"
   has been updated.
   (merge d064702be3 rp/apply-cached-doc later to maint).

 * Feeding "$ZERO_OID" to "git log --ignore-missing --stdin", and
   running "git log --ignore-missing $ZERO_OID" fell back to start
   digging from HEAD; it has been corrected to become a no-op, like
   "git log --tags=no-tag-matches-this-pattern" does.
   (merge 04a0e98515 jk/rev-input-given-fix later to maint).

 * Various callers of run_command API have been modernized.
   (merge afbdba391e jc/run-command-use-embedded-args later to maint).

 * List of options offered and accepted by "git add -i/-p" were
   inconsistent, which have been corrected.
   (merge ce910287e7 pw/add-p-allowed-options-fix later to maint).

 * "git diff --stat -w" showed 0-line changes for paths whose changes
   were only whitespaces, which was not intuitive.  We now omit such
   paths from the stat output.
   (merge 1cf3d5db9b mr/diff-hide-stat-wo-textual-change later to maint).

 * It was possible for xrealloc() to send a non-NULL pointer that has
   been freed, which has been fixed.
   (merge 6479ea4a8a jk/xrealloc-avoid-use-after-free later to maint).

 * "git status" has trouble showing where it came from by interpreting
   reflog entries that record certain events, e.g. "checkout @{u}", and
   gives a hard/fatal error.  Even though it inherently is impossible
   to give a correct answer because the reflog entries lose some
   information (e.g. "@{u}" does not record what branch the user was
   on hence which branch 'the upstream' needs to be computed, and even
   if the record were available, the relationship between branches may
   have changed), at least hide the error and allow "status" to show its
   output.

 * "git status --short" quoted a path with SP in it when tracked, but
   not those that are untracked, ignored or unmerged.  They are all
   shown quoted consistently.

 * "git diff/show" on a change that involves a submodule used to read
   the information on commits in the submodule from a wrong repository
   and gave a wrong information when the commit-graph is involved.
   (merge 85a1ec2c32 mf/submodule-summary-with-correct-repository later to maint).

 * Unlike "git config --local", "git config --worktree" did not fail
   early and cleanly when started outside a git repository.
   (merge 378fe5fc3d mt/config-fail-nongit-early later to maint).

 * There is a logic to estimate how many objects are in the
   repository, which is meant to run once per process invocation, but
   it ran every time the estimated value was requested.
   (merge 67bb65de5d jk/dont-count-existing-objects-twice later to maint).

 * "git remote set-head" that failed still said something that hints
   the operation went through, which was misleading.
   (merge 5a07c6c3c2 cs/don-t-pretend-a-failed-remote-set-head-succeeded later to maint).

 * "git fetch --all --ipv4/--ipv6" forgot to pass the protocol options
   to instances of the "git fetch" that talk to individual remotes,
   which has been corrected.
   (merge 4e735c1326 ar/fetch-ipversion-in-all later to maint).

 * The "unshelve" subcommand of "git p4" incorrectly used commit^N
   where it meant to say commit~N to name the Nth generation
   ancestor, which has been corrected.
   (merge 0acbf5997f ld/p4-unshelve-fix later to maint).

 * "git clone" that clones from SHA-1 repository, while
   GIT_DEFAULT_HASH set to use SHA-256 already, resulted in an
   unusable repository that half-claims to be SHA-256 repository
   with SHA-1 objects and refs.  This has been corrected.

 * Adjust sample hooks for hash algorithm other than SHA-1.
   (merge d8d3d632f4 dl/zero-oid-in-hooks later to maint).

 * "git range-diff" showed incorrect diffstat, which has been
   corrected.

 * Earlier we taught "git pull" to warn when the user does not say the
   histories need to be merged, rebased or accepts only fast-
   forwarding, but the warning triggered for those who have set the
   pull.ff configuration variable.
   (merge 54200cef86 ah/pull later to maint).

 * Compilation fix around type punning.
   (merge 176380fd11 jk/drop-unaligned-loads later to maint).

 * "git blame --ignore-rev/--ignore-revs-file" failed to validate
   their input are valid revision, and failed to take into account
   that the user may want to give an annotated tag instead of a
   commit, which has been corrected.
   (merge 610e2b9240 jc/blame-ignore-fix later to maint).

 * "git bisect start X Y", when X and Y are not valid committish
   object names, should take X and Y as pathspec, but didn't.
   (merge 73c6de06af cc/bisect-start-fix later to maint).

 * The explanation of the "scissors line" has been clarified.
   (merge 287416dba6 eg/mailinfo-doc-scissors later to maint).

 * A race that leads to an access to a free'd data was corrected in
   the codepath that reads pack files.
   (merge bda959c476 mt/delta-base-cache-races later to maint).

 * in_merge_bases_many(), a way to see if a commit is reachable from
   any commit in a set of commits, was totally broken when the
   commit-graph feature was in use, which has been corrected.
   (merge 8791bf1841 ds/in-merge-bases-many-optim-bug later to maint).

 * "git submodule update --quiet" did not squelch underlying "rebase"
   and "pull" commands.
   (merge 3ad0401e9e td/submodule-update-quiet later to maint).

 * The lazy fetching done internally to make missing objects available
   in a partial clone incorrectly made permanent damage to the partial
   clone filter in the repository, which has been corrected.

 * "log -c --find-object=X" did not work well to find a merge that
   involves a change to an object X from only one parent.
   (merge 957876f17d jk/diff-cc-oidfind-fix later to maint).

 * Other code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
   (merge 84544f2ea3 sk/typofixes later to maint).
   (merge b17f411ab5 ar/help-guides-doc later to maint).
   (merge 98c6871fad rs/grep-simpler-parse-object-or-die-call later to maint).
   (merge 861c4ce141 en/typofixes later to maint).
   (merge 60e47f6773 sg/ci-git-path-fix-with-pyenv later to maint).
   (merge e2bfa50ac3 jb/doc-packfile-name later to maint).
   (merge 918d8ff780 es/worktree-cleanup later to maint).
   (merge dc156bc31f ma/t1450-quotefix later to maint).
   (merge 56e743426b en/merge-recursive-comment-fixes later to maint).
   (merge 7d23ff818f rs/bisect-oid-to-hex-fix later to maint).
   (merge de20baf2c9 ny/notes-doc-sample-update later to maint).
   (merge f649aaaf82 so/rev-parser-errormessage-fix later to maint).
   (merge 6103d58b7f bc/sha-256-cvs-svn-updates later to maint).
   (merge ac900fddb7 ma/stop-progress-null-fix later to maint).
   (merge e767963ab6 rs/upload-pack-sigchain-fix later to maint).
   (merge a831908599 rs/preserve-merges-unused-code-removal later to maint).
   (merge 6dfefe70a9 jb/commit-graph-doc-fix later to maint).
   (merge 847b37271e pb/set-url-docfix later to maint).
   (merge 748f733d54 mt/checkout-entry-dead-code-removal later to maint).
   (merge ce820cbd58 dl/subtree-docs later to maint).
   (merge 55fe225dde jk/leakfix later to maint).
   (merge ee22a29215 so/pretty-abbrev-doc later to maint).
   (merge 3100fd5588 jc/post-checkout-doc later to maint).
   (merge 17bae89476 pb/doc-external-diff-env later to maint).
   (merge 27ed6ccc12 jk/worktree-check-clean-leakfix later to maint).
   (merge 1302badd16 ea/blame-use-oideq later to maint).
   (merge e6d5a11fed al/t3200-back-on-a-branch later to maint).
   (merge 324efcf6b6 pw/add-p-leakfix later to maint).
   (merge 1c6ffb546b jk/add-i-fixes later to maint).
   (merge e40e936551 cd/commit-graph-doc later to maint).
   (merge 0512eabd91 jc/sequencer-stopped-sha-simplify later to maint).
   (merge d01141de5a so/combine-diff-simplify later to maint).
   (merge 3be01e5ab1 sn/fast-import-doc later to maint).

Branching and Merging

The Git feature that really makes it stand apart from nearly every other SCM out there is its branching model.

Git allows and encourages you to have multiple local branches that can be entirely independent of each other. The creation, merging, and deletion of those lines of development takes seconds.

This means that you can do things like:

  • Frictionless Context Switching. Create a branch to try out an idea, commit a few times, switch back to where you branched from, apply a patch, switch back to where you are experimenting, and merge it in.
  • Role-Based Codelines. Have a branch that always contains only what goes to production, another that you merge work into for testing, and several smaller ones for day to day work.
  • Feature Based Workflow. Create new branches for each new feature you’re working on so you can seamlessly switch back and forth between them, then delete each branch when that feature gets merged into your main line.
  • Disposable Experimentation. Create a branch to experiment in, realize it’s not going to work, and just delete it – abandoning the work—with nobody else ever seeing it (even if you’ve pushed other branches in the meantime).

Small and Fast

Git is fast. With Git, nearly all operations are performed locally, giving it a huge speed advantage on centralized systems that constantly have to communicate with a server somewhere.

Git was built to work on the Linux kernel, meaning that it has had to effectively handle large repositories from day one. Git is written in C, reducing the overhead of runtimes associated with higher-level languages. Speed and performance has been a primary design goal of the Git from the start.

Benchmarks

Let’s see how common operations stack up against Subversion, a common centralized version control system that is similar to CVS or Perforce. Smaller is faster.

Distributed

One of the nicest features of any Distributed SCM, Git included, is that it’s distributed. This means that instead of doing a “checkout” of the current tip of the source code, you do a “clone” of the entire repository.

Multiple Backups

This means that even if you’re using a centralized workflow, every user essentially has a full backup of the main server. Each of these copies could be pushed up to replace the main server in the event of a crash or corruption. In effect, there is no single point of failure with Git unless there is only a single copy of the repository.

Any Workflow

Because of Git’s distributed nature and superb branching system, an almost endless number of workflows can be implemented with relative ease.

Subversion-Style Workflow

A centralized workflow is very common, especially from people transitioning from a centralized system. Git will not allow you to push if someone has pushed since the last time you fetched, so a centralized model where all developers push to the same server works just fine.

Data Assurance

The data model that Git uses ensures the cryptographic integrity of every bit of your project. Every file and commit is checksummed and retrieved by its checksum when checked back out. It’s impossible to get anything out of Git other than the exact bits you put in.

Staging Area

Unlike the other systems, Git has something called the “staging area” or “index”. This is an intermediate area where commits can be formatted and reviewed before completing the commit.

One thing that sets Git apart from other tools is that it’s possible to quickly stage some of your files and commit them without committing all of the other modified files in your working directory or having to list them on the command line during the commit.

Free and Open Source

Git is released under the GNU General Public License version 2.0, which is an open source license. The Git project chose to use GPLv2 to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software—to make sure the software is free for all its users.

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Cheap Git 2.29.0 Hosting Recommendation

 

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ASPHostPortal DiscountService.biz UKWindowsHostASP.NET
$1.00/month $2.00/month £3.00/month
Host 1 Site Host 1 Site Host 5 Sites
1 GB Disk Space 1 GB Disk Space 1 GB Disk Space
10 GB Bandwidth 10 GB Bandwidth 20 GB Bandwidth
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Support UTF-8 Domains Support UTF-8 Domains Support UTF-8 Domains
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Latest ASP.NET Latest ASP.NET Latest ASP.NET
Plesk Control Panel Plesk Control Panel Plesk Control Panel
Windows 2008/2012 Windows 2008/2012 Windows 2008/2012
SQL Server 2008/2012/2014 SQL Server 2008/2012/2014 SQL Server 2008/2012/2014
Latest MySql version Latest MySql version Latest MySql version

How to Choose Cheap Git 2.29.0 Hosting Recommendation?

Reliability and Speed of Access

Not only should the web host be reliable and fast, it should guarantee its uptime (the time when it is functional). Look for a minimum uptime of 99%. In fact, even 99% is actually too low — it really should be 99.5% or higher. The host should provide some sort of refund (eg prorated refund or discount) if it falls below that figure. Note though that guarantees are often hard to enforce from your end — especially if the host denies there was any downtime. However, without that guarantee, the web host will have little incentive to ensure that its servers are running all the time.

Data Transfer (Traffic/Bandwidth)

Data transfer (sometimes loosely referred to as “traffic” or “bandwidth”) is the amount of bytes transferred from your site to visitors when they browse your site.

Don’t believe any commercial web host that advertises “unlimited bandwidth”. The host has to pay for the bandwidth, and if you consume a lot of it, they will not silently bear your costs. Many high bandwidth websites have found this out the hard way when they suddenly receive an exorbitant bill for having “exceeded” the “unlimited bandwidth”. Always look for details on how much traffic the package allows. I personally always stay clear of any host that advertises “unlimited transfer”, even if the exact amount is specified somewhere else (sometimes buried in their policy statements). Usually you will find that they redefine “unlimited” to be limited in some way.

In addition, while bandwidth provided is something you should always check, do not be unduly swayed by promises of incredibly huge amounts of bandwidth. Chances are that your website will never be able to use that amount because it will hit other limits, namely resource limits.

To give you a rough idea of the typical traffic requirements of a website, most new sites that don’t provide video or music on their site use less than 3 GB of bandwidth per month. Your traffic requirements will grow over time, as your site becomes more well-known, so you will need to also check their policy when you exceed your data transfer limit: is there a published charge per GB over the allowed bandwidth? Is the charge made according to actual usage or are you expected to pre-pay for a potential overage? It is better not to go for hosts that expect you to prepay for overages, since it is very hard to forsee when your site will exceed its bandwidth and by how much.

Disk space

For the same reason as bandwidth, watch out also for those “unlimited disk space” schemes. Many new sites (that don’t host videos or music) need less than 20 MB of web space, so even if you are provided with a host that tempts you with 100 GB (or “unlimited space”), be aware that you are unlikely to use that space, so don’t let the 100 GB space be too big a factor in your consideration when comparing with other web hosts. The hosting company is also aware of that, which is why they feel free to offer you that as a means of enticing you to host there.

Technical support

Does its technical support function 24 hours a day, 7 days a week (often abbreviated 24/7), all year around? Note that I will not accept a host which does not have staff working on weekends or public holidays. You will be surprised at how often things go wrong at the most inconvenient of times. Incidentally, just because a host advertises that it has 24/7 support does not necessarily mean that it really has that kind of support. Test them out by emailing at midnight and on Saturday nights, Sunday mornings, etc. Check out how long they take to respond. Besides speed of responses, check to see if they are technically competent. You wouldn’t want to sign up with a host that is run by a bunch of salesmen who only know how to sell and not fix problems.

Email, Autoresponders, POP3, Mail Forwarding

If you have your own site, you will probably want to have email addresses at your own domain, like [email protected], etc. Does the host allow you to set up whatever email addresses you want on your domain, so that mail can be forwarded to your current email address, or placed into a mail box on your web hosting account itself? Can you set an email address to automatically reply to the sender with a preset message (called an autoresponder)? Can you retrieve your mail with your email software?

Control Panel

This is called various names by different hosts, but essentially, they all allow you to manage different aspects of your web account yourself. Typically, and at the very minimum, it should allow you to do things like add, delete, and manage your email addresses, and change passwords for your account. I will not sign up with a host where I have to go through their technical support each time I want to change a password or add/delete an email account. Such tasks are common maintenance chores that every webmaster performs time and time again, and it would be a great hassle if you had to wait for their technical support to make the changes for you.

Web Server and Operating System

Is the type of operating system and server important?

In general, most people will want to sign up for a web host offering a Unix-based system (like Linux, FreeBSD or OpenBSD) and running the Apache web server. Most web-based software assume your website is running on such a system, and you will usually experience fewer compatibility issues with it. There are also a lot of guides available on the Internet on configuring such systems, so finding help when you need it is easier as well.

In my opinion, the only time when you will want to use a Windows server is if you’re running Windows-specific programs, like ASP scripts. But even then, you’ll probably be better off looking for a PHP-equivalent, and using a Unix-based system.

Price

I was actually hesitant to list this, but I guess it’s futile not to. However, I would caution that while price is always a factor, you should realise (“realize” in US English) that you often get what you pay for, although it’s not necessarily true that the most expensive hosts are the best.

Monthly/Quarterly/Annual Payment Plans

Most web hosts allow you to select an annual payment plan that gives you a cheaper rate than if you were to pay monthly. My current personal preference is to pay monthly with all new web hosts until I’m assured of their reliability and honesty. Paying monthly allows me to switch web hosts quickly when I find that the current host does not meet my requirements: this way, I’m not tied down to a bad web host because I have prepaid for an entire year. I do this even if the new web host guarantees that they will refund the balance if I’m dissatisfied, since at the point I sign up, I have no assurance that they will honour their guarantee. Later (usually after a couple of years), when I’m satisfied with the host, I may change payment plans to the discounted annual plans.

Resellers?

Not all hosting companies own or lease their own web servers. Some of them are actually resellers for some other hosting company. The disadvantage of using a reseller is the possibility that you are dealing with people who don’t know much about the system they are selling and who take longer to help you (they have to transmit your technical support request to the actual hosting company for it to be acted upon). However, this also depends on both the reseller and the underlying hosting company. It is thus wise not to rule out all resellers; there are a number of reliable and fast ones who are actually quite good and cheap. In fact, a number of resellers sell the same packages cheaper than their original hosting company. If you find out that a particular company is a reseller, you will need to investigate both the reseller and the real hosting company.

International

If you don’t stay in the USA, you have the option of hosting your site with some local provider. The advantage here is the ease of dealing with them (they are after all easily accessible by phone call or a visit), your familiarity with the local laws and easy recourse to those laws should it be necessary. It should be your choice if your target audience is local (eg a local fast food delivery service). On the other hand, hosting it in USA has the advantage of faster access for what is probably the largest number of your overseas visitors (particularly if you have an English-speaking audience). You also have a large number of hosting companies to choose from, and as a result, cheaper prices too.

Anjali Punjab

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